Eileen Hsiang-ling Hsu. Splendour of the Northern Qi: Imperial Buddha Statues
In 556 a young nobleman, Gao Rui (534–69), commissioned four Buddha images. Gao, a nephew and cousin of the Eastern Wei (534–50) and Northern Qi (550–77) imperial rulers, dedicated these respectively, to his uncle and older cousin, to his parents, to his elder stepsister and her mother, and to his wife and himself. Although their dedicatory inscriptions were recorded in Qing period (1644–1911) epigraphic catalogues, the sculptures themselves were not published until recently (Liu Jianhua, 1999).